Advanced Pathophysiology Knowledge Checks


 

QUESTION 1

  1. A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was brought to the clinic by her son who customary that his dame had become slightly confused aggravate the gone-by various days. She had been stumbling at residence and had aggravatepowered uninterruptedly but was talented to ambulate delay some difficulty. She had no other open problems and had been eating and drinking. The son became unquiet when she forgot her son’s spectry, so he conception he improve procure her to the clinic.  
    PMH-Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) delay peripheral neuropathy x 20 years. COPD. Depression behind termination of segregateicipator various months ago 
    Social/family hx - non contributary denying for 30 pack/year narrative tobacco use.  
    Meds: Metformin 500 mg po BID, ASA 81 mg po qam, escitalopram (Lexapro) 5 mg po q am established 2 months ago 
    Labs-CBC WNL; Chem 7- Glucose-92 mg/dl, BUN 18 mg/dl, Creatinine 1.1 mg/dl, Na+120 mmol/L, 
    K+4.2 mmol/L, CO237 m mol/L, Cl-97 mmol/L.  
    The APRN refers the enduring to the ED and designated endocrinology for a confer for peculiarity and conduct of syndrome of impertinent antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). 


    Question:
    Define SIADH and demonstrate any enduring characteristics that may enjoy conduced to the fruit of SIADH.



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1 points   

QUESTION 2

  1. A 43-year-old damely exhibits to the clinic delay a foremost remonstrance of flush, chills, abomination and vomiting and faintness. She has been untalented to restrain any help, liquids or medications down. The symptoms began 3 days ago and enjoy not responded to ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or Nyquil when she prepared to transfer them. The clime has reached as violent as 102˚F.  


     Allergies: none unconcealed to offals or help or environmental  


     Medications-20 mg prednisone po qd, omeprazole 10 po qam 


     PMH-telling for 20-year narrative of steroid relying rheumatoid arthritis (RA). GERD. No other telling illnesses or surgeries. 


    Social-denies alcohol, unfair offals, vaping, tobacco use 


    Physical exam 


    Thin, ill apparent dame who is sitting in exam margin chair as she said she was too imbecile to escalade on the exam consideration. VS Temp 101.2˚F, BP 98/64, pulse 110, Resp 16, PaO2 96% on margin air.  


    ROS denying other than GI symptoms. 


    Based on the enduring’s clinical gift, the APRN diagnoses the enduring as having unimportant hypocortisolism due to the lack of prednisone the patient was entrance for her RA unimportant to vomiting.


    Question:


    Explain why the enduring exhibited these symptoms? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 3

  1. A 64-year-old Caucasian damely exhibits to the clinic delay undetermined symptoms of non- restricted abdominal affliction, myalgias, constipation, polyuria, and says she impresss “fuzzy toped” plenteous of the period. She had environing of offspring stones a few weeks ago and she fortunately was talented to by the feeble stones delayout requiring lithotripsy or other interventions. She was told by the urologist to supervene up delay her important thrift provider behind the offspring stones has firm.  
    The APRN examining the enduring call a Chem 7 which inspired a serum Ca++ of 13.1 mg/dl. The APN believes the enduring has primary hyperparathyroidism and refers the enduring to an endocrinologist who does a accomplished product up and concurs delay the APRN’s peculiarity. 
    Question:
    What is the role of parathyroid hormone in the fruit of primary hyperparathyroidism? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 4

  1. A 64-year-old Caucasian damely exhibits to the clinic delay undetermined symptoms of non- restricted abdominal affliction, myalgias, constipation, polyuria, and says she impresss “fuzzy toped” plenteous of the period. She had a discerption of her equittelling metatarsal delayout trauma and currently is wearing a walking boot. She as-well had a bout of offspring stones a few weeks ago and she fortunately was talented to by the feeble stones delayout requiring lithotripsy or other interventions. She was told by the urologist to supervene up delay her important thrift provider behind the offspring stones has firm.  


    The APRN examining the enduring call a Chem 12 which inspired a serum Ca++ of 13.1 mg/dl. The APRN believes the enduring has important hyperparathyroidism and refers the enduring to an endocrinologist who does a accomplished product up and concurs delay the APRN’s peculiarity. 


    Question 1 of 2:


    Explain the processes complicated in the construction of renal stones in endurings delay hyperparathyroidism. 

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 5

  1. A 64-year-old Caucasian damely exhibits to the clinic delay undetermined symptoms of non- restricted abdominal affliction, myalgias, constipation, polyuria, and says she impresss “fuzzy toped” plenteous of the period. She had a discerption of her equittelling metatarsal delayout trauma and currently is wearing a walking boot. She as-well had a bout of offspring stones a few weeks ago and she fortunately was talented to by the feeble stones delayout requiring lithotripsy or other interventions. She was told by the urologist to supervene up delay her important thrift provider behind the offspring stones has firm.  
    The APRN examining the enduring call a Chem 12 which inspired a serum Ca++ of 13.1 mg/dl. The APRN believes the enduring has important hyperparathyroidism and refers the enduring to an endocrinologist who does a accomplished product up and concurs delay the APRN’s peculiarity. 
    Question 2 of 2:
    Explain how a enduring delay hyperparathyroidism is at risk for bone fractures.  

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 6

  1. A 64-year-old Caucasian damely who is 4 weeks standing support aggregate parathyroidectomy delay forearm gland insertion presents to the general surgeon for her support-operative checkup. She avows that her opening impresss discourage and she impresss “tingly all aggravate. The surgeon suspects the enduring has hypoparathyroidism unimportant to the parathyroidectomy delay advanced vascularization of the implanted gland. She call a Chem 20 to individualize what electrolyte abnormalities may be exhibit. The labs reveal a serum Ca++ of 7.1 mg/dl (recurrent 8.5 mg/dl-10.5 mg/dl) and phosphorous smooth of 5.6 mg/dl (recurrent 2.4-4.1 mg/dl).  


    Question:


    What solemn consequences of hypoparathyroidism occur and why? -- Font nobility --Andale MonoArialArial BlackBook AntiquaComic Sans MSCourier NewGeorgiaHelveticaImpactSymbolTahomaTerminalTimes New RomanTrebuchet MSVerdanaWebdingsWingdings-- Font bulk --1 (8pt)2 (10pt)3 (12pt)4 (14pt)5 (18pt)6 (24pt)7 (36pt)-- Format --HeadingSub Heading 1Sub Heading 2ParagraphFormatted Code-- Font nobility ---- Font bulk --Path: pWords:0

1 points   

QUESTION 7

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  


    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  


    Allergies-none know  


    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 


    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 


    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  


    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  


    Question 1 of 6:


    The enduring exhibited chaste signs of Model 1 diabetes. Explain the pathophysiology of “polydipsia.”

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1 points   

QUESTION 8

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  


    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  


    Allergies-none know  


    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 


    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 


    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  


    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  
    Question 2 of 6:


    The enduring exhibited chaste signs of Model 1 diabetes. Explain the pathophysiology of “polyuria.”

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1 points   

QUESTION 9

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  
    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  
    Allergies-none know  
    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 
    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 
    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  
    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  
    Question 3 of 6:
    The enduring exhibited chaste signs of Model 1 diabetes. Explain the pathophysiology of “polyphagia.”

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1 points   

QUESTION 10

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  


    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  


    Allergies-none know  


    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 


    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 


    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  


    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  
    Question 4 of 6:
    The enduring exhibited chaste signs of Model 1 diabetes. Explain the pathophysiology of “efficacy mislaying.”

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 11

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  
    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  
    Allergies-none know  
    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 
    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 
    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  
    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  
    Question 5 of 6:
    The enduring exhibited chaste signs of Model 1 diabetes. Explain the pathophysiology of “fatigue.”

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 12

  1. A 17-year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents who are unquiet environing their son’s efficacy mislaying notwithstanding eating exalt, frequent urination, unquenchtalented dryness, and harass that is intrusive delay his initiate/product activities. He had been appearingly healthy until environing 3 months ago when his parents established noticing these symptoms but put these symptoms down to his busy catalogue including a segregate period job. He admits to latent exalt and tires very abundantly. He denies any other symptoms.  
    PMH-noncontributory. No surgeries or elder medical problems. Ordinary deliberates and ear pestilential as a child  
    Allergies-none know  
    Family narrative- tender uncle delay “some peel of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the correct malady process 
    Social-denies alcohol, tobacco or unfair offal use. Not sexually erratic. Junior at persomal violent initiate and products in a secure help store behind initiate and on weekends. 
    Labs in employment: random glucose 220 mg/dl.  
    Based on his symptoms and the glucose smooth, the pediatrician makes a speculative peculiarity of Diabetes Mellitus model 1 and refers the boy and his parents to an endocrinologist for exalt product up and conduct artifice.  
    Question 6 of 6:
    How do genetics and environunsubstantial factors conduce to the fruit of Model 1 diabetes?

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1 points   

QUESTION 13

  1. A 17-year-old boy recently diagnosed delay Model I diabetes is brought to the pediatrician’s employment by his parents with a foremost remonstrance of “having the flu”. His symptoms began 2 days ago, and he has vomited various periods and has not eaten very plenteous. He can’t mind if he took his prescribed insulin for various days consequently he felt so powerless. Random glucose in the employment reveals glucose 560 mg/dl and the pediatrician made arrangements for the enduring to be admitted to the hospitalist use delay an endocrinology confer.  


    BP 124/80mmHg; HR 122bpm; Respirations 32 breaths/min; Temp 97.2˚F; PaO297% on RA 


    Admission labs: Hgb 14.6 g/dl; Hct 58% 


    CMP- Na+ 122mmol/L; K+ 5.3mmol/L; Glucose 560mg/dl; BUN 52mg/dl; Creatinine 4.9mg/dl;  


    Cl- 95mmol/L; Ca++ 8.8mmol/L; AST (SGOT) 248U/L; ALT 198U/L; CK 34/35 IU/L; Cholesterol 198mg/dl;  


    Phosphorus 6.8mg/dl; Acetone Moderate; LDH38U/L; Alkaline Phosphatase 132U/L. 


    Arterial order gas values were as supervenes: pH 7.09; Paco220mm Hg; Po2100mm Hg; Sao2 98% (margin air) 


    HCO3-7.5mmol/L; anion gap 19.4 


    A peculiarity of diabetic ketoacidosis was made, and the enduring was transferred to the Intensive Thrift Unit (ICU) for close monitoring.  


    Question:


    The hormones complicated in intermediary metabolism, scientific of insulin, that can segregateicipate in the fruit of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, augmentation hormone. Describe how they participate in the fruit of DKA.

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1 points   

QUESTION 14

  1. A 67-year-old African American manful exhibits to the clinic delay a foremost remonstrance that he has to “go to the bathmargin all the period and I impress unquestionably imbecile.” He avows that this has been going on for environing 3 days but couldn’t after to the clinic foregoing as he went to the Wound Thrift clinic for a dressing fluctuate to his equitable great toe that has been chronically infected, and he now has osteomyelitis. Patient delay unconcealed Model II diabetes delay indigent guide. His decisive HgA1C was 10.2 %. He says he can’t grant the insulin he was prescribed and simply transfers half of the verbal vicar he was prescribed. Random glucose in the employment inspired glucose of 890 mg/dl. He was instantly referred to the ED by the APRN for evaluation of suspected hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non ketotic syndrome (HHNKS). Also designated hyperglycemic hyperosmolar avow (HHS).  


    Question:


    Explain the underlying processes that administer to HHNKS or HHS.

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1 points   

QUESTION 15

  1. A 32-year-old dame exhibited to the clinic dissatisfied of efficacy form, protuberance in her legs and ankles and a puffy countenance. She as-polite recently open hypertension and diabetes model 2. She melodyd indigent short-term retention, impressibility, debauchery hair augmentation (women), red-ruddy countenance, extra fat around her neck, harass, indigent strain, and menstrual excludeion in observation to muscle faintness. Given her substantial mien and narrative, a speculative peculiarity of hypercortical function was made. Diagnostics included serum and urinary cortisol and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). MRI inspired a pituitary adenoma.  


    Question:


    How would you distinguish Cushing’s malady from Cushing’s syndrome? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 16

  1. A 47-year-old womanly is referred to the endocrinologist for evaluation of her chronically exorbitant order constraining, hypokalemia, and hypervolemia. The enduring’s hypertension has been stubborn to the ordinary medications such as beta blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. After a liberal product up including serum and urinary electrolyte smooths, aldosterone reservation touchstone, plasma aldosterone to renin ratio, and MRI which inspired an autonomous adenoma, the endocrinologist diagnoses the enduring delay important hyper-aldosteronism.  


    Question:


    What is the pathogenesis of important hyper-aldosteronism? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 17

  1. A 47-year-old African American manful exhibits to the clinic delay foremost remonstrances of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and efficacy mislaying. He as-polite said that his vison casually blurs and that his feet rarely impress discourage.  He has increased hunger notwithstanding efficacy mislaying and admits to impressing unusually tired. He as-polite complains of “swelling” and extension of his abdomen.  


    Past Medical Narrative (PMH) telling for HTN fairly polite inferior delay and ACE inhibitor; mediate embonpoint, and dyslipidemia treated delay a statin, Review of systems denying denying for foremost remonstrance. Substantial exam unremarkable except for decreased filament touchstone twain feet. Random glucose in employment 290 mg/dl. The APRN diagnoses the enduring delay model II DM and prescribes verbal medication to guide the glucose smooth and as-well referred the enduring to a dietician for dietary teaching. 


    Question:


    What is the basic underlying pathophysiology of Model II DM? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 18

  1. A 21-year-old manful was complicated in a motorcycle additament and sustained a closed top waste. He is morning up and interacting delay his nobility and medical team. He complained of dryness that doesn’t appear to go afar no stuff how plenteous steep he drinks. The nurses melody that he has had 3500 cc of pale-yellow urine in the decisive 24 hours. Urine was sent for osmolality which was reputed as 122 mOsm/L. A peculiarity of probtalented neurogenic diabetes insipidus was made.  


    Question:


    What agents diabetes insipidus (DI)? 

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 19

  1. A 43-year-old womanly enduring exhibits to the clinic delay remonstrances of nervousness, racing heartbeat, anxiety, increased exudation, passion obstinacy, hyperactivity and palpitations. She avows she had had the symptoms for various months but attributed the symptoms to beginning to thrift for her elderly dame who has Alzheimer’s Disease. She has elapsed 15 pounds in the decisive 3 months delayout dieting. Her gone-by medical narrative is telling for rheumatoid arthritis that she has had for the decisive 10 years polite guideled delay methotrexate and prednisone. Physical exam is remarktalented for periorbital edema, warm silky impressing bark, and palptalented thyroid nodules in twain lobes of the thyroid. Pending laboratory diagnostics, the APRN diagnoses the enduring as having hyperthyroidism, also called Graves’ Disease.


    Question:


    Explain how the denying feedback loop guides thyroid smooths.

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1 points   

QUESTION 20

  1. A 43-year-old damely enduring delay unconcealed Graves’ Disease exhibits to the clinic delay remonstrances of nervousness, racing heartbeat, regardfulness, increased exudation, passion obstinacy, hyperactivity and strict palpitations. She avows she had been fond a usage for propylthiouracil, an antithyroid medication but she did not satisfy the usage as she claims she elapsed it. She had been fond the discretion of thyroidectomy which she decomposed. She as-polite melodys that she is having misery delay her prospect and frequently has blurry eyes. She avows that her eyes appear “to bug out of her countenance”. She has had periodic outs of abomination and vomiting. She was recently hospitalized for pneumonia.  Substantial exam is telling for open exophthalmos and pretibial myxedema. Vital signs are temp 101.2˚F, HR 138 and disorderly, BP 160/60 mmHg. Respirations 24. Electrocardiogram inspired atrial fibrillation delay speedy ventricular repartee. The APRN recognizes the enduring is experiencing symptoms of thyrotoxic emergency, as-polite designated thyroid rage. The enduring was instantly enraptured to a hospital for hazardous thrift conduct. 


    Question:


    How did the enduring disclose thyroid rage? What were the enduring factors that administer to the fruit of thyroid rage? 

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1 points   

QUESTION 21

  1. A 44-year-old dame exhibits to the clinic delay remonstrances of most-violent harass, efficacy form, decreased appetency, deliberate obstinacy, dry bark, hair mislaying, and sleepiness. She as-polite admits that she frequently bursts into tears delayout any reason and has been denyingionally forgetful. Her prospect is casually blurry, and she admits to being undistinguished delayout any political or occupational triggers. Past medical narrative noncontributory. Physicalexam Temp 96.2˚F, pulse 62 and recurrent, BP 108/90, respirations. Dull facial expression delay immodest facial features. Periorbital puffiness noted. Based on the clinical narrative and substantial exam, and pending laboratory basis, the ARNP diagnoses the enduring delay hypothyroidism.  


    Question:


    What agents hypothyroidism? 

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 22

  1. A 44-year-old dame is brought to the clinic by her helpmeet who says his helpmeet has had some unsubstantial standing fluctuates aggravate the gone-by few days. The enduring had been previously diagnosed delay hypothyroidism and had been placed on thyroid reanimation therapy but had been elapsed to follow-up due to tender to another city for the helpmeet’s product approximately 4 months ago. The enduring avows she elapsed the usage bottle during the propel and didn’t twainer to enjoy the usage filled since she was impressing improve. Physical exam inspired non-pitting, boggy edema around her eyes, hands and feet as polite as the supraclavicular area. The APRN recognizes this enduring had severe myxedema and referred the enduring to the hospital for medical conduct.  


    Question:


    What agents myxedema coma? 

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 23

  1. A 53-year-old dame exhibits to the important thrift clinic delay remonstrances of strict topaches, palpitations, violent order constraining and diaphoresis. She relates that these symptoms after in clusters and when she has these “spells”, she as-polite experiences, tremor, abomination, faintness, regardfulness, and a sense of doom and terror, epigastric affliction, and flank affliction. She had one of these spells when she was at the pharmacy and the pharmacist took her order constraining which was recorded as 200/118. The pharmacist recommended that she instantly be evaluated for these symptoms. Past medical narrative telling for a nobility narrative of neurofibromatosis model 1 (NF1). Based on the exhibiting symptoms and nobility narrative of NF1, the APRN suspects the enduring has a pheochromocytoma. Laboratory basis and computerized tomography of the abdomen confirms the peculiarity. 
    Question 1 of 2:


    What is a pheochromocytoma and how does it agent the chaste symptoms the enduring exhibited delay? 

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0.5 points   

QUESTION 24

  1. A 53-year-old dame exhibits to the important thrift clinic delay remonstrances of strict topaches, palpitations, violent order constraining and diaphoresis. She relates that these symptoms after in clusters and when she has these “spells”, she as-polite experiences, tremor, abomination, faintness, regardfulness, and a sense of doom and terror, epigastric affliction, and flank affliction. She had one of these spells when she was at the pharmacy and the pharmacist took her order constraining which was recorded as 200/118. The pharmacist recommended that she instantly be evaluated for these symptoms. Past medical narrative telling for a nobility narrative of neurofibromatosis model 1 (NF1). Based on the exhibiting symptoms and nobility narrative of NF1, the APRN suspects the enduring has a pheochromocytoma. Laboratory basis and computerized tomography of the abdomen confirms the peculiarity. 
    Question 2 of 2:
    What are the treatment goals for managing pheochromocytoma? 

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1 points   

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